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This is how it was with the city greenery, which had been the symbol of this city since ancient times. From the times of Turkish occupation, along the streets and alleys of Banjaluka only dwarfing apples, plums, pears and other fruit have remained, the branches of which were broken by mischievous children while eating unripe fruits. Nowadays, the new government developed the first parks, and along the curbs of Banjaluka streets, instead of crippled fruit trees, they planted, tilia and other deciduous trees.
This is how the famous alleys originated, until today the most beautiful symbols of Banjaluka. The biggest merit for the creation of alleys has Austro-Hungarian general Alfred von Jelson Under the command of this high officer and baron, from to , as much as 17 kilometers of tree alleys were planted, with almost 5, trees. Some Banjalukans, not used to chang-. Linguists, however, think that the name of this city derived from the verb banj, i. It is not known for certain which medieval Ban it was.
Meanwhile, two different transcriptions of the name of the city were accepted as equal: separated Banja Luka and as one word Banjaluka. In accordance with the said etymology, it also requires a consequent change of the adjective in Serbian language. To the satisfaction of all later inhabitants of the city, as well as guests, the seedlings thrived and, with time, grew into a peaceful gauntlet, which is today comprised of over 20, trees in about fifty kilometers of tree alleys.
And the entire city with them! Namely, archaeological findings indicate that there used to be a Roman camp Castra, and next to it, along the Crkvena, a civilian settlement with a temple dedicated to god Jupiter. This is also indicated by the foundations of a late Roman administrative building discovered within the fortress. Later, on this location, Turks built a large fortification. The fortress, which is still hiding numerous secrets of past centuries in known and hidden hallways, can today be entered from three directions: from the north from the Market , from the west from Ferhadija and from the from the Vrbas.
If we decide to use the northern gate, a stone building. On these gates, apparently, the fatal love was born, which would create the material fro famous Banjaluka legend about Safikada In this part of Kastel today there is an open stage, where concerts of classical, rock, folk and ethno music take place, and occasionally theatre performances. The city center is created around the newly built Christian Orthodox temple. On the Day of St. A new golden era of this city begins. Energetic and entrepreneurial, the Ban changes the face and spirit of the city.
In only thirteen months, The Banovina Administration was built today the City Administration Office , on the third anniversary of his coming into the city the Ban court was moved, theatre and museum were founded meanwhile, newspaper launched, apartments for civil servants were built, a new hotel, park in the centre of the city Dayak Boats on the Waters of the Vrbas Guests visiting the bulwarks of Kastel during summer will almost certainly have a chance to see a dayak down in the river, from its bulwarks.
This unusual vessel is a symbol of the city and has been the pride of Banjaluka for more than a century and a half. The body of this boat, 7 to 9 meters long, is made of fir tree, while prow and stern are made from harder wood oak, locust or ash tree. The boat is actually pushed and navigated by means of a dayak, a special pole after which it was named.
This wooden pole, several meters long, has a tip strengthened with a crown and spike, which achieves safer and easier push against the rocky bottom of the river. Ride in a dayak is a special experience and the matter of city prestige. This temple was short-lived demolished to the ground in , but its reconstruction began in This artist graduated from the faculty of sculpture in Paris, and the October Revolution brought him to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in which he would remain for three decades.
In , he moved with his family to Sidney, where he died in The symbol of that Banjaluka from the early 21st century is certainly the Administrative Centre of the Government of Republika Srpska, which was put in use in This modern complex is dominated by the highest building in the city, 17 floors high Government of Republika Srpska. In immediate vicinity there is the House of Radio-Television of Republika Srpska, and business centre which includes the Tax Administration.
On the highest floor of the latter building, the fourteenth, there is a big restaurant. F o u n d ati o n s After disintegration of Yugoslavia, as a big and united economic system, then war destruction, some important characteristics of economic environment in this region have been changed. In the past fifteen years, the economy of Srpska has been erected on the concepts of privatization, establishing small and medium sized companies, infrastructural projects, as well as direct foreign investments.
Important fields of its geo-economy are energy, food and processing industry, services and financial sector. Its natural resources, rich and diverse, are the key factor for geo-economic shaping of this republic. Main competitive advantages for investment here are agricultural land, forest complexes, hydroclimate conditions, mineral resources, and big tourist potentials. Energy industry certainly has a strategic position in the economy of Srpska and it attracts interest of numerous foreign and local investors.
Big Ventures in Energy Industry The energy industry of Srpska, however, is yet to face the realization of big projects. Together with thermal power plants that use coal in Gacko and Ugljevik, total available power of the producers is 1, megawatts and it satisfies the needs of citizens amend local economy, while a part of electric power is exported. More than 50 percent of the production went to export.
According to the data from , there are more than 1, food manufacturers here. About companies, agricultural cooperatives and independent producers are involved in agricultural production and services in agriculture. They employ. Healthy Food In the past years Srpska has been developing capacities for production of organic food, and strengthening brands based on tradition in the production and on geographic origin of products.
Available resources, existence of production tradition, as well as a large number of entities that standardized products and processes, enabled the food produced on Srpska to be sold in increasingly big quantities in the European Union, USA, Canada, Russia and Australia. Forests Forestry is another national natural treasure and economic potential of Srpska.
Forest complex stretches over 1,, hectares. Of this, 50 percent are high forests, 27 percent low, and the rest is comprised of woodlands and barrens. In addition to production of wood intermediates for farther processing, forests are the basis for operation and significant number of companies involved in collecting and processing secondary forest products, medicinal herbs and mushrooms, but also processing of forest waste. Individual farmers and agricultural companies work in farming, animal husbandry, fruit and vegetable growing, fishery, bee-keeping, all the way to viticulture and production of medicinal and aromatic plants.
About economic entities are involved in processing of agricultural products produced in this ways, employing about 6, people. There are over 0. Srpska also has different geographical and climate conditions, and it is possible to be involved in activities typical for plains, hills and mountains, but also for Mediterranean area.
About 12 percent of this amount goes to wood processing. Formerly, it used to be mostly the primary wood processing. In the past decade, however, there is an increasing share of well equipped capacities that are involved in production of their own final wood product. Although dependent on export, industry of textile, leather and footwear is a branch of industry oriented toward export, which employs 8, people.
For this reason, the businessmen in this area are primarily based on lohn activities for foreign partners, users of subsidies for export and fiscal benefits. In addition to manufacturers of food, beverages and tobacco, metallurgy and processing of metal also stand out for total volume and realized total income. About of economic entities of this type, based on their share in export of Srpska, form one of the most significant industries, with.
A guarantee for this is a wide range of products, from good quality ores iron and bauxite , alumina, aluminium profiles, steel pipes, machines, boilers for central heating, to airplane engines, tools, electrodes for welding and other products. The most important products of electrical and chemical industry of Srpska are electrical machines, devices and parts, plastic masses and products made from them, various products of chemical industry and pharmaceutical products.
Paper production and graphical industry have an increasingly important place in the economy of Republika Srpska. It is comprised of companies that are involved in graphical activity, printing services, production of paper and paper products,. Trade sector has been transformed in the past decade, developed its capacities and modernized trading techniques.
There is a higher share of retail chains, centers and hypermarkets. People invest into modern forms of wholesale and retail. Companies from this sector account for 35 percent of all in Srpska, while every fifth employee works in trade.
The fact that Srpska is on one of three major tourist routes in Europe, connecting Eastern Europe with the Adriatic Coast, substantiates the expectation that tendency of growth in visits and number of overnights will continue. Tourist potentials of Srpska are significant, but in this edition of National Review this will be a topic of a separate article.
Stability of the Financial System Banking sector, the most important part of a financial system, has been completely reformed in Srpska. It has marked positive trends in all segments of operation. It has 10 banks, while there are 11 companies operating in the insurance market.
Until Eagles Fly Again Under pressure, after controversial judicial decisions, the coat of arms of Srpska was replaced with a temporary symbol which has a role of an official coat of arms. In two decades of its existence, Republika Srpska has already had two coats of arms. The first was heraldically well based and accepted by the people, and the second one appeared only as a proposal.
Several Millennia Old Symbol Eagle is an ancient and complex symbol, celestial angelic and solar. It exists in all traditions, from far eastern to pre-American. It symbolizes height, the angelic, light of the mind, spirituality, contemplation, sharp-sightedness. In Christianity, eagle is an attribute of apostle and evangelist John, and sometimes, especially in the Middle Ages, it used to be identified with Christ himself.
Eagle is a several millennia old symbol in heraldry as well. It used to be a symbol of Roman emperors, and it remained the same in Byzantine. From the 10th century, instead of single-headed, a double-headed eagle appears on Byzantine coats of arms. As such, it also symbolizes unity of worldly and sacral principle in the community, symphony of state and church, court and temple, crown and miter. Such crown was also on the coat of arms of the Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro, as well as on the court flag of Montenegro in the early 20th century, and on the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Emblem of Republika Srpska is bordered with two golden branches, two wreaths with golden oak leaves. It is also important to point out another important detail. Together with the cult of St. Sava and history of Kosovo, double-headed white eagle and cross with fire steels are the highest symbolical and historical features in all Serbian countries. Therefore it is understandable why Serbian people of Republika Srpska see and feel exactly these symbols as they code heraldic sign.
And when, immediately after the foundation of Republika Srpska, its coat of arms was to be defined, there were no dilemmas. A dominant detail on this first coat of arms was double-headed eagle on a red shield. The eagle had golden beaks and claws and golden crown on its head.
Its chest was covered with a red shield, in the centre of which there was a silver cross, an d under each arm of the cross, in all four corners of the shield, there was one silver fire steel facing outward. Pursuant to the decision of the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in early , this coat of arms was annulled. Expansion Double-headed eagle spread from Byzantine to the countries within its cultural orbit Serbia, Russia Experts involved in heraldry proposed another coat of arms, which was adopted on July 15, by the Assembly of Republika Srpska, but it was soon withdrawn.
That coat of arms also had an interesting design. Like the previous one, it featured a double-headed white eagle, only without a crown, with a shield over its chest, with a cross and fire steels. Lilies had that same position on the coat of arms the Kingdom of Serbia. In this new version, the coat of arms of Srpska was also given a pedestal and shield supports. The entire coat of arms stands on a golden pedestal in the centre of which lays the pointed bottom part of the red shield.
On both ends of the pedestal, there are two lions standing on their back feet, wearing on their heads Serbian crowns from the previous version of the coat of arms. On the right and left shoulder blade of erected lions there are two medallions, with two heraldic signs. On the medallion on the left side, in blue field, there.
Flag The flag adopted at the time of creation of Republika Srpska was spared by court prohibition. It is, actually, an old Serbian rectangular tricolor, with three equal horizontal fields — red, blue and white. It belongs to the group of tricolor Slavic flags. All these heraldic elements and symbols that appear on the two coats of arms and the emblem of Republika Srpska are deeply rooted in Serbian tradition. Both white eagles and crosses with fire steel were impressed into shields and seals in the Byzantine, on gowns on Byzantine emperors and aristocrats.
From there, they were very early transferred to Serbia. Peter and Paul in Bijelo Polje, painted in the late 12th century, there is a double-headed eagle. It also appears among his descendants. White eagle is engraved on incense holders that arrived from Serbia to Bari, to the church where the relics of St. On the obverse side of the. On the left side the shield has right slanted stripe and three lilies on each field. They also entered coat of arms galleries that preceded Stematography by Hristofor Zhefarovich, and such presentations on coats of arms of Serbian rulers and countries contributed to the creation of national awareness of Bulgarians as well.
From the. Based on old authentic forms of double-headed eagle, the new coat of arms was created, flying double-headed eagle, while the heraldic naturalistic drawing was taken from our times. Orbini and P. Anthem The anthem God of Justice, which was unanimously accepted by the people of Srpska from the very beginning, was also rejected by the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
There is not a single example that Serbian church would enthrone a ruler who is not Christian Orthodox. Large residencies were built around the church, the monastery had a large fraternity, and among monks there were great spiritual people, skilled copyists of books and biographers, masters for manufacture of church items.
It often received gifts from Serbian rulers and gentry, filling its famous treasury. The monastery had large estates which provided it with significant income. Coronation of king Tvrtko I was an event that attracted great attention. The same attitude had Hungarian king Lajos. Scarcity of historical data created the space for various interpretations and contemplations, especially because this question could have been used to disentangle many knots of Bosnian history.
One of the apparent dilemmas around which historians were in sharp disagreement is whether king Tvrtko I was a Christian Orthodox, Roman Catholic or Bogomil. The process of collecting evidence is ongoing even today.
He studied and reconstructed the ritual of coronation of Serbian medieval rulers, which were also followed during coronation of king Tvrtko. On the basis of this ritual, he concluded what the religion of the crowned ruler must have been. Assumption It was common that the rulers from the same royal lineage would be crowned in the church in which their founder was crowned. The high authority of Saint Sava It also applies to Bogomils. Serbia at that time was characterized by deep union between Greek loyalty to pure Christian Orthodox church and Serbian loyalty of church to the state.
Serbian church can certainly not be criticized for political ignorance, and therefore it would be unthinkable that it would, as the result of ignorance and inability to evaluate the consequences of its actions, do something that would be. That is really impossible. To this end, his statement would not have been enough, but also a series of evidence from his surroundings, including his theologians.
There is not a single proof that Serbian church would put on the throne a ruler who was not Christian Orthodox. The maximum seriousness in this respect is reflected also in the fact that such a great religious and national holiday as the Day of St. Demetrius was chosen as the day of coronation. It is known that the metropolitan with priests and monks was waiting for him in the monastery, and that they spent more than one night there. The coronation took place on November 8 October 26 according to old calendar , The liturgy was served by the metropolitan with priests.
He studied in Graz, Zagreb, Jena and Munich. After earning his doctorate degree in , he finds employment in Karlovac gymnasium, where he stayed for a year, and then he goes to gymnasium in Sremski Karlovac, where he worked for twelve years.
In , he was appointed professor of Serbian and Croatian history at a new university in Ljubljana, and in , he became a regular member of Serbian Royal Academy. When World War Two broke, he immigrated to Belgrade, and at the end of the war he was retired by the government. He studied the history of Byzantine, medieval Serbia and medieval Bosnia.
He left a number of significant works. He died in The coronation was similar to ordination of Serbian bishops today. During liturgy, the future king was in the altar, and he participated, like the priests, in the sacral ceremony, which is generally reserved only for priests.
Then he would make a promise, there, in front of the altar, that he would protect and help Christian Orthodox church and that — and this was a mandatory part — fight against any heresy. Only after this he could proceed with communion. Just like the priests, the future king would take communion in the altar. Autumn lights penetrated at an angle through church windows, and the inside of the temple was illuminated with numerous candles. Deacons then took the portable table nalonj.
From its development, one can really feel, especially on the West, the change in relationship between the state and church. In the East, however, all coronations of rulers show unbreakable desire of the church that the ruler should prove his loyalty to Christian Orthodox church.
In its relation toward the ruler, Western church was torn by multitude and diversity of desires, in combination with its political aspirations, and that is why it was changing them according to political climate, while the Eastern church always had only one desire in front of its eyes — loyalty to Christian Orthodox church, combined with love for mankind. He founded Russian intelligence service.
At Constantinople slave market, during a secret visit, he bought, and gave as a gift to the Russian emperor, a young Ethiopian who was to become the great-grandfather of Alexander Pushkin. In Siberia, he founded the city and in the centre of which there is a temple dedicated to Serbian St.
He never forgot his people, language and religion. With his three daughters, he rests near the imperial family in the sacred Alexander Nevsky Lavra in St. Tall figure with a long hair, in the style of that time, with piercing and clear eyes, body like making a pivot, with a scroll in his hand, it is an expression of a resolute man, who is stranger to either action or contemplation. It reminds us of virtues in times of defeat and collapse of the state.
Even if Serbian state was swallowed by the darkness, the desire of people to recreate it did not. The state lives through its best people. Petersburg district, Russia. A descendant of medieval Serbian gentry, who withdrew to Herzegovina after the Battle of Kosovo, this authentic Serbian aristocrat embodies the virtues of his race in murky times of defeat. Insufficiently illuminated and researched, this man, very important for us, is. Serbian-Russian relations in all epochs speak about unusual common fate of two people of the same origin and religion.
From the arrival of Russian white immigrants in Serbia, until liberation of Serbia in World War Two, with immense help of Russian army. This uninterrupted connection has lasted up to the present day, both on personal and state level. His life, in an unusual way, crossed path with life of Czar Peter the Great, an exceptional personality of Russian and European history.
He turned the Principality of Moscow into an empire. Through opening toward Europe and a series of reforms in all areas of life, he introduced a new dynamics in relations of European powers. In this dynamics of relationships, the fate of Serbian countries under the Turks was also preserved. Lively spiritual activity of Serbs from Herzegovina of that time was amazing. They also maintained ties with monks from all Serbian territories monk Gligorije from Rakovica Monastery near Belgrade.
Militant religion was intertwined with politics. Insurrection plans were being made. Pressed with waqfs on one hand and Dubrovnik and Venetian cynicism on the other, a unique Serbian culture was thriving almost in anonymity. Letters from the archives, written by him and members of his family, reveal highly cultured people.
As a young man he found himself in Constantinople, at the time when aristocrats were also involved in trading. He knew the situation in Turkey well. In cooperation with Dubrovnik emissary and Jerusalem Patriarch Dositej, he comes in contact with Russian emissaries in Constantinople, first with count Ukrajincev, and then with Golicin and Tolstoy. Sava already had the aura of the indispensable personality from the reports of Russian emissaries. The meeting of two young people, full of mutual respect, was decisive.
In Peter I Sava saw a splendid and militant figure of Slavic empire, able to change the situation in the Balkans as well. Well informed about the situation in Venice and Constantinople, he quickly fit into ambitious plans of Peter the Great. He had what to talk about with the Tsar. He taught him how to trade and advised on shipbuilding.
From his travel to Turkey he brought to the Tsar A Secret Report on the Black Sea, about strategic situation on the territory that is vital for Russia. He was one of the key founders of the imperial secret and intelligence service. For this purpose, he made great use of his trading network across Europe. For great contributions in war and diplomacy, the Tsar was generously rewarding him with land and castles in Moscow, on Pokrovka, and later in St.
He also left an interesting trace in Russian literature. From one of his journeys he brought two black boys as a gift to the Tsar, purchased on the slave market in Constantinople. To one of them, the favorite in the court, the Tsar was the godfather, and provided him with attention and education.
He made an excellent military career. It was the great-grandfather of the famous Pushkin. Never forgetting the Serbian issue, all the time he maintains contacts with our insurgents and clergy. During the Russian. Since Peter the Great was interested, Sava translated into Russian this, by that time the most comprehensive history of Serbs and other Balkan peoples. The book was published in Russian in , and it enabled Russians to better understand ethnic and historical circumstances in the Balkans.
A kind of a cult of Peter the Great was created in our. The failure pan-Orthodox campaign against Turkey postponed the liberation for the entire century. Sava made diplomatic preparation of the campaign on the Prut but, in the decisive day of the battle, treason of the Vlach duke Brankovan, who did not join the campaign despite the assumed obligations, was decisive.
He also advises the Tsar in economic issues, thus filling the state treasury by means of his reforms. Christian Orthodox people, Turkish citizens, declared war to their sovereign so that they could use the diversion to help the Russians. He had broad authority in conducting trade with Europe. He skillfully supplies the imperial family with many artworks. In Venice, he gets married with a thirty years younger than him from a wellknown patrician family, Virgilia Trevisan, with whom he had three daughters unfortunately, their children died young.
He took care about Russian aristocrats-cadets in European countries. Solution for the Serbian question is once again postponed. Serbian coast and hinterland are still changing foreign hands. Dubrovnik Senate refused his wish, supported by the Tsar, to build a Serbian endowment on his estate in the city of St.
With cold pride, he leaves this city forever. The crown of his service in the Russian court was departure on three years long difficult negotiations related to border with. China, upon the order of the empress. He manages to ensure 6, kilometers long border, the line that sustained for almost years. In long and complex negotiations he is using all his diplomatic skills. He made maps of Siberia and builds border fortifications. In one of the newly founded cities, Troitskosavsk today Kyahta , he builds a temple and a monastery dedicated to Serbian St.
In The Secret Report on China. He suggests to the court what political course to take, with the most detailed understanding of the state reason and strategy. Only a higher form of mind can crystallize such insights. Near the end of his life, he suffered a series of personal tragedies. His mother, Teofanija, died, as well as all three daughters he had with his young wife Virgilia, as well as his son Luka from the first marriage. Crushed with sorrow, Sava died on June 17, , at the age of The level of esteem he enjoyed at the Russian court can be seen in the fact that he, his mother and three daughters were buried next to the imperial family, in the Church of Holy Annunciation of Saint Alexander Nevsky Lavra in St.
In his will, he or-. When we think about this man, we cannot but raise a question about current Serbian and Russian aristocracy. If we understand an aristocrat as a person who carries in himself the idea of the Order and the State, then he has an obligation to build new structures and shape the spirit of the new era, not rushing into things that do not make the State stronger.
State as the most important structure, sanctity, frame of the total life, beyond which we do not exist and with which we are everything. When it comes to Russia, ratio gives way to enthusiasm, skepticism turns into faith, and present time becomes nostalgia of the future, because deep down we suspect that Serbia is Little Russia and Russia is Little Serbia. Because of his nobleness and goodness, he has indeed been beloved, which executioners rarely forgive.
It remains unknown whether he ended his life in Jadovno, Jasenovac or Zagreb, but it is known that he suffered for the sake of the Godman By: Hristina Plamenac. Despite this, little has been spoken or written about this life, while his death has remained a mystery up to the present day. After finishing the Reljevo Seminary, , he enrolled at the Orthodox Seminary Faculty in Chernovitz in present-day Ukraine , the highest educational institution of its kind in Austro-Hungary.
After completing his studies , he spent a year at the Vienna University, and was later appointed professor of the Reljevo Seminary, where he was a distinctive and extraordinary pedagogue. After hearing that the bishop is arriving by train, about 4.
Old ninety-one year old duke Bogdan was also at the station, not to greet his son, but his bishop. All the deepness of St. For, indeed, he was one of those people whose deeds speak best of them, by which we can recognize them best. I would most rather enjoy with you and have long conversations. I would have reason both to scold and to praise you. A series of tragic historical events soon followed. First, all hopes for liberation were lost after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
During this time, the Metropolitan, as any caring father, did everything possible and impossible for his people, earning respect during his lifetime, similar to his great predecessor St. Vasilije of Ostrog. In any case, it is certain that he suffered and died as a martyr for Christ. Despite the difficult times and fear that such times provoked, St.
Petar managed to raise and restore churches, and to ordain priests. During his time, the Metropolitan Court in Mostar was built burnt down by the Croatian paramilitary units in After the war ended, he comprehensively worked on uniting the Serbian Orthodox Church, and then, after the establishment of the Patriarchy, upon the request of the Church, in he was transferred to the Archbishopric of Dabar and Bosnia lectureship. If there had been any animosity and hostility after World War I, the bishop did much to end the hostilities, tensions and distrust, and to heal the wounds of war.
He often went for walks through the Muslim suburb. Seeing him come, people would come out of their shops and coffee shops and greet him with respect. He was truly loved among the people. But the way he taught and acted in such an evil and unscrupulous time, and in such a space, was unforgivable.
Petar was one of the candidates for Patriarch. One of the last reports of the Metropolitan to the Holy Archpriest Synod testifies about all this. Although he knew that his eventual return would mean certain death, his fatherly care for his people still took him back to Sarajevo, on the second day of Easter. A week after came the German officers for inquest.
They accused the elderly bishop. I do not fear of death threats, since I am already with one foot in my grave. They received a response that they were in none of the concentration camps in NDH. That very thing happened on May 12, on the day of St. The Ustasha police agents came and took him to the police station. He was completely isolated, and it was impossible to make any contact with him. Three days later, two agents brought the bishop back to, allegedly, take what he needs.
They also ordered the safe to be opened, and they took the panagias, medals and documents. Decades later, the Metropolitan of Dabar and Bosnia Vladislav, during his business trip to Zagreb, found a protocol with the list of things which were taken. Of all the things, only those which could not be sold remained: diplomas and decrees about the medals.
The bishop was taken to Zagreb and put in a police prison under file number The torturing, derision and humiliation continued. Next to him one would become nostalgic, witty and cheerful. Nobody was able to, with so much charm, bring us closer to others and teach us how to love our people.
Here is one, in the glory of the dish that kept us alive as much as humor and song. Fortunately, an old rule says that beans are more delicious the following day, after standing awhile This is actually a dish that one can hardly eat alone.
More Than a Joke Unpretentious but lucid, Momo Kapor left us many unforgettable sentences-aphorisms that are much more than a joke. The Great National Cook Book that records some thirty dishes made of dry beans old Belgraders even used to make beanbased face masks claims that the bean, in addition to Vitamin A, contains some 24 organic elements of which ten are vital for the human body.
The bean, Phaseolus vulgaris in Latin, belongs to the genus Papilionaceous, and arrived to our region from Peru in the late sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth centuries. Almost every nation has several bean dishes in its national cuisine. There is also the Dalmatian pastafagioli with mac-.
After this dish one drinks cool spring water in a misted-over glass. The salad was fresh cabbage. In autumn, roast peppers with plenty of garlic. Wine, the cheapest. Serbs are, it seems, the only people in the world who crave, of all beans, army beans! When you prepare the riches bean dish for your closest friends, complete with smoked ribs, bacon and smoked pork joints, they longingly claim that they have never tasted such good beans as in the army!
This is probably because they cook it without brown sauce, because it is eaten in the flower of youth and because it contains the taste of friendship, danger and risk. Perhaps the bean will help us, too, reach the stars. In these hard times, old women tell fortunes from the kernels of beans. What does the future hold for us? A View of the World from Our Window He was a writer-institution, with several talents living inside him.
He was raised on the folk heroic history, oral tradition and fairytale images, in the homeland of humorous stories and fables; he recognized the dimension of the classics of ancient cultures in Serbian heritage. Born amidst the First, participant and poet of the Second World War, he wanted to confront the cruelness of the world with gentleness, beauty and humor.
And from the Slavic lands Hashek, Gogol and Chekhov. That is the contribution of authentic literature: to make the reader see and experience something better and deeper than his or her own life. Some left to school, some to a brigade, some were colonized, some introduced electricity, which light replaced the images of the Fire-Bird and shed light on the dark corners of imagination, shadows, wraiths, language… The soul. In the middle of that road was the revolution.
Branko defended the soul, the goodness, the innocence — the childhood of his people. He wrote enthusiastic verses of marches and lamenting tones of jeremiads alongside. Nikoletina In that battle, which somehow resembled the ancient battles and hayduks, our writer was most affectionate towards the village fighters pulled into a new heroic fairytale by their instincts to defend their homes, homeland and honor. The most remarkable among them was Nikoletina — the augmentative of the name of the Christian saint and traditional protector of the home, a great name for a great hero, comprised of shyness and courage, honesty and clumsiness at the same time.
Perhaps most breakdowns happened in the people and their being. However, another two persons lived in his gift: a narrator and a humorist. He began with melancholic love stories — and published many of them as a young man in Politika before the war. Then the war began. That war made the border between literature for children and literature for adults even softer.
He saw the war and revolution as a great uprising of all people, young and old, ancestors and descendants — to defend freedom, the motherland and all the values of the world and humans. That is why it was necessary to describe and write about hundreds of feats, heroes, participants of epic battles, which — for this writer — took place in Kozara and Sutjeska, as well as in many smaller, yet not less important battles, among common people, in their unique hearts.
There comes the. He later regretted for not having all the books about young heroes Eagles Fly Early, Glorious Warfare, Battle in the Golden Valley published in editions for adults. The border between children and adults in authentic books disappears itself. Both as yellow as beeswax, both transfigured.
Dear Lord, thank you for letting me see saints before my death. Two Nikolas are with him: Nikoletina big Nikola and Nikolica s prikolicom little Nikola with a trailer. The Battle Lyre of Pioneers appeared in Zagreb in A writer of a thousand stories, master of short form for children and adults, Branko chose subjects and motifs in the Garden, made an anthology of his soul and his narrative processes: lyrical-humorous approach to childhood, melancholic and introspective diving into the origins of human sensitivity.
He became member of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts in With it, the writer returned to the poet. It contains twelve epitaphs from a small village cemetery, where his favorite heroes, cousins. He is somewhere there with them.
No one is dead — they are all in books. Monks of this monastery, with Prior Sava, on the basis of long traditions began a new chapter in Serbian monastery wine-making. They are taking care of 70 hectares of vine in Trebinjsko polje and they planted 60 more hectares of young vineyards in Popovo polje. Right there, between the mighty stone hills and the wisdom of the nearby sea, they get delicious wine, like nowhere else in the world.
Between mountains and the sea, Trebinje is standing as a rosebush between rocks. In the mixed blood of highlanders and the people from the sea, a unique character was formed, made of the strength of a stone and the wisdom of water, a character which enriches the existence of the Serbian people in Travunija, Zahumlje and Hum.
Wars were waging, they washed off the memories and the salt of wisdom on the hills of Trebinje. Some wounds are still fresh, and many old wounds are still not healed. We see Trebinjsko polje in front of us, with vine. Story This wine cannot be described otherwise, but through a story full of mystery and poetry, full of silent fire and memories, because it is the only true story of it, a story which lasts for centuries, and which will last for a very long time.
Trebinjsko and Popovo polje are very fertile areas, created by rinsing of the soil from surrounding hills. Former rich forests were cleared away, mostly during the reign of the Dalmatians, after in the period of Austria-Hungary, so the erosion brought all fertile soil to Trebinjsko and Popovo polje. Hot summers and mild winters, an expressive sub-Mediterranean climate, stone soil with the most fertile terrain — all make ideal conditions for wine-making, which is extracted from the stone and the dry soil, from the sun and the winds which collide above Trebinje, from the mountains and from the sea.
But, this is the wine of tranquillity, monastery silence and gentleness of monks who nourish it. DESERVING THE WINE When you find that wine in your town or village, nearby or far away, where you were born or where you came afterwards, when you reach your hand for it, you can read a lot on its nicely designed declaration that will bring you back the story, so old but yet always new. You shall read that the geographic origin of the wine is from Petropavlovsko polje, Trebinje, East Herzegovina, that its type is red and dry.
Its sort: vranac. You shall learn that it is prepared in a traditional way. Fermentation is made in big oak barrels, in old monastery cellars. In the style of old wine-maker of Herzegovina, the grape is left to ripen for a very long time on huskus, so that vranac could get more coloured and tannin materials, which give the wine its structure and full taste. It goes great with smoked and dried meat, with ripe whole milk cheese, oil cheese, all sorts of smoked fish, grilled eel, all sorts of roasted meat, especially lamb.
We are thrilled with what we have seen. There are many new temples and monasteries, but, more importantly, we have seen live Church and people who live for their Church, people witnessing Christ, who. The people among which one can feel togetherness with the people in Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, in short with Serbs no matter where they lived.
In Republika Srpska, the Church is a stronghold around which our people gather, and even their leaders who persistently resist and withstand storms of powerful persons around the world who would, it sometimes seems, blow away this Republic. We hope that the Holy Martyr and Archdeacon Stefan, who is celebrated by Republika Srpska as its Name Saint, its protector, and through him the life giving God, will help. It is our wish that, in these holy areas of Republika Srpska as well, it contributes to the said Christian values and good interpersonal relationships — said His Holiness.
They live together with Christ and know their journey and their goal. As we already said, national leaders in Republika Srpska understand the significance of the Church in the strengthening of spiritual identity of a nation. It is not easy to lead an entity in times when hatred emanates from many.
We can overcome evil only with truth, justice, faith in God and hope. The Lord will bless the justice and truth and everything that is good. Immediately after foundation of Republika Srpska, wise people introduced religion in the curriculum of its schools.
It has been like this for twelve years now and the results are evident, and they will be even more evident in the future. We will mention only one of these results: opening of Christian Orthodox gymnasiums, kindergartens and geriatric centers under the auspices of the Church. Let us also add to this the good will of the government of Republika Srpska expressed in the process of restitution of property that the State had confiscated from the Church long time ago.
The fullness of cooperation between the Church and Srpska has been here realized for the benefit of all people in this Republic. This cooperation is now the basis for the Church to show in all its fullness its potential that should serve for the benefit of all.
Therefore, the Church is now facing great responsibility, like in all times. To what extent is the Serbian Orthodox Church, as the blood stream of Serbian people, managing to contribute with its to the unity of its entire national corpus?
Our Holy Church is trying to preserve the unity of our people, divided, between mondialistic-existentialistic and spiritualnational being. Through centuries, and it is certainly the case today, the Church is doing everything it can so that we would remain as one. Strengthening of spiritual and national element in the spirit of Christian Orthodox Church is nothing else but a starting point for understanding with all people and communities. The national character for Christian Orthodox people is the starting point for opening toward the.
Generally, togetherness is in the nature of the Church, first in the family and then beyond, in the nation, and then between nations. It is necessary that we collaborate with everybody, to build active togetherness. Serbian Orthodox Church is trying to create a healthy and critical approach toward its people, but also other nations and communities in the world and around us.
Christ loved all people, he died for them, Photographs: but at the same time he criticized the most Archives of the nation in which he was born as GodMan. We must cooperate with everybody and build active togetherness. How do you explain this fact? It violated both legal and ethical norms, thus defying the purpose of its existence. Certainly, with these rulings it provoked anger not only among Serbian people, but also among all righteous people. However, Serbian people must be persistent and show that these acquittals do not express justice.
Anyway, so many people in the history evaded legal condemnation, but not historical justice. Serbs in Kosovo and Metohija today live in a ghetto, which is known to everybody. Human rights, freedom as the ultimate achievement of contemporary civilization, as proclaimed in various charters of major international organizations, do not apply for the Serbs in Kosovo and Metohija. Serbian people and other non-Albanians in Kosovo and Metohija are deprived of their rights.
They live in poverty and fear. As time goes by, we see that even Albanians will also get hurt if they raise their voice against injustice all witnesses who testified against Haradinaj were killed. All this indicates that the self-proclaimed so-called Republic of Kosovo is nothing else but a community of injustice for most people who live in. With this we want to say that not only the suffering of the Serbs is hurting us, but the suffering of all decent and innocent people.
Even today, although the war has long been over, nobody is prosecuted for killing Serbs. And all this before the eyes of the so-called international community, the proponents of human rights, the model of civilization progress.
They condition our accession to Europe exactly with Kosovo and Metohija. However, in all this we must not forget that not all members of the EU have recognized Kosovo and Metohija as an independent state. As much as it seems hopeless, it is certainly possible to find a certain space for maneuvers exactly through those EU member states that do not recognize Kosovo and Metohija, but also other countries members of the United Nations. On the other hand, we must be aware that the current situation is unfavorable and is not developing for our benefit.
This unfavorable position must be compensated with readiness for negotiations. Negotiations are necessary in order to help the Serbian and other persecuted communities in Kosovo and Metohija until the moment of final decision regarding the status. The wisest people that we have should be involved in such negotiations. We should be reminded that one hundred years of negotiations are better than one day of war. Serbian people have showed that they know how to fight knightly and bravely and that they are willing to die for freedom, for faith and for homeland.
Now it is time for them to show that they know how to negotiate, opening the space for all those wise people who can have significant contribution in our efforts for establishing permanent peace in this part of the world. In addition to politics, a lot of spiritual effort and many years will be needed to solve the problem.
It is necessary that we learn to live with each other in Kosovo and Metohija. Only in such a situation we can imagine Kosovo and Metohija as truly a part of Serbia, spiritual and territorial. In every other situation, we will see Kosovo and Metohija either as a burden or as an area for some new battlefields.
We must persist in our vision of Kosovo and Metohija as the opposite to the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo in which everybody is deprived of their rights. On the other hand, political leaders in Serbia must be aware of the responsibility they are assuming and decisions that may have far-reaching consequences.
Petka in , the current Serbian Patriarch Irinej was ordained as hierodeacon. What are the greatest challenges for Serbian people on both sides of the Drina today? Challenges or temptations that Serbian people are going through today — we can say — are temptations that Orthodox Christianity is going through, Christianity in general, as well as other people who are not Christians.
It also brought atheism, and antagonism to religion, which escalated in horrible wars in the 20th century, and many other more local wars that we already mentioned, and which, unfortunately, did not spare us. Degradation embodied in emphasizing the system of values that offers debauchery, fraud, sexual and moral depravity, gaining money at any cost, hedonism, drugs, in vitro infanticide, etc That is why it is our duty to pray for our fallen brothers, so that God would open the eyes of their minds, and so the would honestly repent and step on a narrow road that leads to eternal life.
At the end, your arch-pastoral message to the people and political leadership of Republika Srpska? Let us show love for people around us. Not all of us are the same, not everybody knows God, but we should know that it is God who created us. Evil cannot be defeated with evil; it can only be defeated with goodness. And it is better that we suffer on the way of God, than to make injustice to others. Saint Sava showed us the road that we should follow, the road of Christ.
Therefore, since we know the road, why are we wandering? The Lord, through his disciples, left us Gospel, his Soft word, which is so understandable to everybody and which directs us how to lead our life from the coming into this world until the moment when we leave it. The Holy Church ha also been teaching us, through centuries, what it is that we should do.
And united with Christ we become new people, people who are in love with everybody. People who do not talk bad about their neighbors. Who do not envy. Who preserve the purity and sanctity of marriage and family. Who will not substitute faith with superstition. Who do not hate and do not cause injustice.
Who preserve in themselves the image of Christ. Who will embrace their neighbor and forgive one another. Because, since God forgave us, how can we not forgive each other? That is why we love one another with love with which God loves us. In addition to love, other things that we also need today, as always, are peace and goodwill, as angels sang when Christ was born. They have peace on their lips, but their heart is filled with hatred and unrest.
The more God we have in our hearts, the more peace there will be on earth. We are inviting our people in Republika Srpska to remain in the faith of Christ and faith of our holy ancestors. Because, if we grow in the faith of Christ, our love for God and for our neighbors will grow as well. In Srpska today freedom has a higher price than in Serbia, says a poet. Maybe exactly this is the reason why the President of Srpska has showed to all Serbian politicians how to defend legitimate national interests in front of foreigners.
And Republika Srpska is getting stronger, despite all disturbances, and its position is strong. It cooperates with both the East and the West. He was born in in Banjaluka. Today on its 21st birthday, how do you see international, regional and inter-Serbian positions of Republika Srpska? It is evident that the position of Republika Srpska has shown a trend of growing. Experience and Width You have a degree in political sciences.
How useful is that background in operating politics and practical aspects of modern political technology? It certainly helps, but it is not decisive. There are many people who are successfully involved in politics, but do not have a degree form the faculty of political sciences or humanities. Like everywhere else, experience is important. It takes willingness and ability to be continuously informed and to follow different areas — from law to economy, so that you can successfully react to all the challenges that may appear before a politician and a state official.
We are determined never again to allow political and legal violence, primarily of all high representatives who, in not so distant past, played a key role in devastation of Dayton Peace Agreement and unconstitutional transfer of authorizations form an entity to the state.
One of former high representatives Paddy Ashdown was a leader in this. These are the moments when our position was weakened, but we managed to stop that trend and today we have a situation when we include on our agenda the return of seized accountabilities and affirmation of the original Dayton Agreement.
I think that we have managed to significantly strengthen the position of Republika Srpska on regional level and establish contacts and concrete relations with all countries of the former Yugoslavia. Republika Srpska has been visited by presidents or prime ministers of all coun-.
Of course, in regional contexts, our relationship with Serbia is the most important. We consider Serbia our parent country and we want to build as good relations as possible with it in all areas. We are one people that was, against its will and by accident, divided into several countries. These are facts that we respect, but they cannot and will no prevent us to, in accordance with constitutional and democratic principles, continue and strengthen cooperation of Serbs who live in countries of the former Yugoslavia, as well as around the world.
Still, many people in the Serbian corpus see Srpska as the more responsible and more upright state than the parent Serbia. How do you comment on this? We want to. We all know for the freedom of Republika Srpska what these challenges are.
Some of them, like the status of Kosovo, are still present today. In that period, Serbia was changing governments and political options, but the trend of making compromises before requirements of foreign factors, most of which were not on the side of Serbia, has remained. Serbian officials believed that the politics of dialogue and compromises would be accepted and that the ultimate agreement would respect at least a minimum of national and state interests of Serbs and Serbia.
It turned out that this was not the case, and the question of Kosovo is a paradigm of such relation. Most western countries have recognized Kosovo, and the European Union went a step farther, by conditioning the progress in the process of accession with de facto recognition of Kosovo by Serbia. It is a humiliation for Serbia and Serbian people. It is obvious that all of this was not enough to respect at least the minimum requirements of the Serbian side.
Believe me, it is not easy to withstand all the pressures that were and still are coming from representatives of powerful and influential countries and international organizations. This is not about our defiance, but awareness that if we make a compromise in certain issues — it means automatic loss for Republika Srpska.
It is the politics that is supported by all citizens of Republika Srpska, but also recognized by many people in Serbia, from whom we receive support. After disintegration of Yugoslavia, Serbian ethnic and historical areas were again politically dismembered, but Serbian cultural space was and has remained united.
Has enough been done to empower, deepen and institutionalize that unity? Formal-legal base for all types of cooperation, including cultural, is the Agreement on special and parallel connections between Republika Srpska and Serbia.
Culture and education are areas in which a lot has been done, but certainly we can do more. It is now up o cultural workers and institutions to find ways to conceptualize this cooperation in a creative and useful manner. As for education, we should work more on coordinating school curriculum and teaching programs in elementary and high schools and faculties in Republika Srpska and Serbia.
Also, the procedure for obtaining Serbian citizenship has been improved. When we talk about the unity of our people, we must also mention Serbian Orthodox Church,. Are you satisfied with this balance and the level of presence of the countries of the East, primarily Russia and China, in the economy of Srpska and Serbia? Our strategy is largely conditioned with our geopolitical position. This is how it was. We are surrounded by countries that are members of candidates for membership in the European Union.
Such a position largely determines our movements. Membership in the European Union is one of those directions, but certainly not the only one. Additionally, when we see what is currently happening in the Union, the division into rich and poor countries, political disputes, our enthusiasm is not out of place.
We are not inclined to unconditionally accept the politics that there is no alternative to the European Union. For us only Republika Srpska has no alternative. When it comes to the welfare of Republika Srpska, we are. Russia and China, the countries that you mentioned, are only some of these countries. I must emphasize that we have excellent relations with both Russia and China.
I am glad that Russian and Chinese investors are interested in Republika Srpska. We are hoping that this is just the beginning and that we will manage to contract more significant investments from Chinese companies and Chinese government. When it comes to Russia and China, it is very important that their assistance and investments have never been politically conditioned, as was the case with Western partners.
Many commercial, tourist, cultural and other potentials of Srpska are not well known either in the Serbian corpus on the Balkans, or in the diaspora of four million. If you agree with this assessment, how is it possible to correct and overcome this? To a large extent, you are right. We have dedicated a lot of attention to the promotion of Republika Srpska in the world, especially in the last few years.
Of course, it is far from being enough, but we are unfortunately limited with our financial abilities. Lobbying and tourist presentation require significant resources, and the results are visible only in the long run. There is often not sufficient understanding locally for the financing of such activities. We have permanent economic representative offices of Republika Srpska in Belgrade, Moscow, Brussels, Stuttgart, Vienna and Jerusalem, and through them we are trying to attract local citizens and businessmen to cooperate with Republika Srpska.
We will continue to work in that direction and try to use more the potential of Serbs in the diaspora. What do you think are the most important brands of Srpska? It is difficult to give a concise answer to this question. It is obvious that we can primarily offer natural beauties and treasures, which provide possibilities for mountain, wellness and ethno tourism, hunting and fishing.
We can also offer good quality local food, wine and honey. Even this requires investments in promotion and cer-. However, some progress has been made. The Olympic mountain of Jahorina is a good example. We have good quality wine cellars, ethno villages and beekeeping cooperatives that have become well known regionally. What is your opinion about this and what are the relations of Srpska with official Montenegro? Relations between Republika Srpska and official Montenegro are good.
We do not have open issues that could jeopardize these relations. We want good cooperation with Montenegro in all areas. We consider Montenegro a friendly country and we want our r elations to be even better. We have been historically and geographically interdependent.
We do not want to interfere in internal affairs of this country and we believe that their poetical structures and legitimately elected representatives should find solutions for all possible problems, among which is the status of Serbs and Serbian language in Montenegro.
How did they — Serbian politicians — respond to this positive example of yours? Thank you for thinking that way. After such a long time spent in politics and on different functions, I have realized that others will respect you if you have an opinion. I am well known for speaking my mind, which is not so common in politics, and according to many also not useful.
And my job is politics, which also entails public appearances. Some people like. Once, if the Time Comes Good state official is always, in a certain sense, a visionary. Can you imagine yourself in the future as a candidate for the President of United Serbian Countries? I am primarily a realist. It is difficult to say what the future will bring.
Maybe sooner or later historical circumstances would be such as to allow the realization of what you are suggesting in your question. If that happens, it is less important who the candidate will be, but how we will seize that opportunity.
As for the opinion of Serbian politicians about my appearance, the best thing would be to ask them. In this and in the upcoming decade, based on your estimates, what will be the major challenges, and what the most important opportunities for Srpska?
It is obvious that the entire world is facing the economic and financial crisis, the end of which is not yet in the horizon and the outcome of which is still uncertain. In such a context we should observe the position of Republika Srpska and challenges ahead. Our economic recovery largely depends on recovery of world markets. Croatia will become a member of the European Union next year. It is a challenge for us but also a chance to make profit, as was done by some other countries which did not border with the European Union, before becoming its members.
Accession to the European Union, for Republika Srpska, is at the same time one of the major political trials, because some are trying to use this process for political modeling of the country. This is primarily related to attempts at centralization and transfer of authorizations from an entity to the state. We have reviewed very carefully all aspects of this process and we will certainly not allow ourselves to be deceived.
Continuous attempts of politicians from Sarajevo to change the Constitution and revitalize the Dayton Agreement, with help from their political sponsors from certain countries, as well as attempts at majorization of Serbs, but also Croats, will certainly not be continues.
If we in Republika Srpska are united, I am sure that we will be able to stand up to those challenges. The highest institution of science and culture of Serbian people west from the Drina does not allow itself to be value-neutral and indifferent. All of its projects — from the field of new materials and nanotechnologies, through heritage of the great Serbian names in world science, to preservation of Serbian language and alphabet — were conceptualized as a strong incentive to spiritual and material development of Srpska.
Since its establishment, the Academy has realized numerous projects of exceptional importance for Srpska. The Academy was established with a task to develop science, improve arts and maintain culture, spirit and creative potentials of its people. In what ways does it fulfill its tasks? Since ancient Greece, Academy has been the highest scientific and artistic institution, the leader in cultural development.
ANURS has also assumed such task. It is performing it by complying with general, many times verified criteria in world science and art, but also concrete activities in the area of science, education, research, contemporary technologies, economy, art, historical analysis from recent and distant future All this is based on definite data and objective truth.
Capital Projects — In the past years, the Academy has realized about twenty projects of exceptional significance, thus taking the role of the leader in the area of arts and sciences, but also an active participant in important questions for Republika Srpska. Some projects were classified as permanent tasks of the Academy.
In the field of culture, we give special attention to language, alphabet, literature, spiritual values, all elements of identity of our people. The Academy does not allow itself to be valueneutral and indifferent. Its permanent activity is strong incentive to spiritual and material development and stability of Republika Srpska. The principle program concept of the Academy is clear. How to you, from the inside, see its role?
Permanent goals of activity and works of ANURS are development of scientific thoughts, nurturing arts and stimulating cultural development, studding important issues in the area of science and arts, participating in the process of formulating the politics of general development in RS, stimulating and coordinating work on long-term projects from various areas, realization of inter-academy and international scientific collaboration An important element of work is organizing scientific meetings and publishing appropriate publications n current legal, political and historical issues.
Some of these already. Profiling of the Academy in accordance with European standards is a project that we have been working on for several years, and we will continue to do so in this year as well. Thanks to significant progress in this, the Academy has become a developmental pillar in our Republic, well known and recognized across Europe. Our program priorities are accelerated work on the completion of the Encyclopedia of Republika Srpska, scientific meeting dedicated to current constitutional, legal and historical issues, publishing of scientific monographs and anthologies, scientific.
We will also strengthen international interacademy cooperation, for example with the association that gathers academies of Danube countries. Encyclopedia of Srpska is a big project? Encyclopedias are published only by cultural and scientific institutions with strong human and material resources, such as national academies or lexicographic institutes. Encyclopedic editions in all countries of the world are one of the most important sources, bases with reliable data about the country and its people.
Encyclopedia RS is one of the greatest and most significant long-term projects of the Academy, and it has great significance for Republika Srpska. Specificity of our Encyclopedia is reflected in the treatment of more than 3, inhabited places in 63 municipalities and cities in Republika Srpska, while other encyclopedias are focusing only on bigger cities.
In this way, this publication will also be an identity card, cadastral and property blueprint of the Republic. About 11, entries have been registered by now, and we are planning to have about 20, entries. All this will be published in three to four volumes.
About 2, entries for the first volume have already been finished, but also many others for the other volumes. About associates are engaged in the preparation of the Encyclopedia. Energy — Following problems and trends in energy sector, in the past few years the Academy has worked on several projects in the area of renewable energy sources. They recently realized a project of a smaller solar power plant, which was mounted on the building of the Academy and connected with our laboratory for solar power.
In this way we enabled continuous investigation of usability of energy of the sun in the area of Banjaluka. Owners of these activities are departments of the Academy, namely boards and committees established within these departments. There is a total of 14 boards, with about members, among which are members of the Academy, professors and researchers from universities in Republika Srpska, and well known artists and writers.
Their engagement ensures god quality and comprehensive scientific and research work. In early , four scientific and research institutes were established, as organizational units and not as legal entities: Institute for History, Institute for Social Research, Institute for Serbian Language and literature and Institute for Natural and Technical Sciences.
They employ about 40 scientists and artists, but additional scientists and researchers from specific areas are engaged for realization of individual project activities. How do they contribute to the development and promotion of the Academy in the world? The Academy appoints as its foreign members renowned scientists and artists. They actively participate in our scientific meetings, transferring the most advanced knowledge from their areas to our scientists and researchers.
A scientific meeting dedicated to World War One is also included in the plan? In addition to historical subjects, we are also actively involved in political-legal subjects. In the past five-six years we have organized about a dozen of such scientific meetings and published anthologies of articles from them. The program for also includes organization of the international scientific meeting that you mentioned.
We have been accepted as a member of the International Council for Science ICSU , the oldest association of scientific institutions in the world, and in this way we are connected with the most important national scientific institutions in the world.
Also very significant is participation of our Academy in the world of the Danube Academies Conference. It organizes scientific meetings and expert discussions, publishes scientific articles, anthologies, monographs. Abundance Waiting for Us As a forgotten beauty and contemporary homeland, Srpska emerges before us and is captivating. Noble and cultured, it is not prone to boasting and self-advertising.
It has patience and dignity of a bridge builder. It knows that its beautiful cities and temples, waters and national parks, canyons and mountains, spa resorts and ethno villages must simply be discovered. It offers almost everything — from adventure, ethno, ecology and spa, to cultural and religious tourism.
A place for rest can be found here both by those who love peace and adventure lovers, those who are focused on nature and those who love to explore the spirit and charm of old local towns. This town has 29 national monuments, as well as the Museum of Herzegovina, which preserves great archaeological treasure.
His remains were transferred from the US and buried in the crypt of the monastery church. Although still under construction, it has recently been opened for visitors. Magnificent Square of Nikola Tesla has been completed, and it is dominated by 2.
Tourists who visit Rogatica will also have a lot to see. And on the other side of Srpska, next to Krupa on the Vrbas, there is a monastery dedicated to Saint Elijah from the 14th century. The cascades of the Krupa and mills along this river are also a real attraction for the visitors of this small town. With its unique urban spirit, as well as cultural, entertainment and other offer, Banjaluka is one of the most magnetic points in tourism of Srpska.
In Doboj, our attention is attracted by the Gradina Fortress from the 18th century, reconstructed in early 21st century. It is a cultural and historical monument of high value, where one can see, among other things, replicas of old weapons and antiques. They enable combinations of various activities of this type, and they are drawn in all tourist maps of the world as top rafting destinations. Rafting is the best way for nature lovers to discover the charms of the Tara Canyon.
The Vrbas River also offers great possibilities for development of sport, recreation and tourism. Because of its canyon, rapids and cascades, this is one of the most suitable rivers in Europe for white water kayaking. Conditions for rafting are also perfect, and in Banjaluka was the host of the World Championship in this sport.
The fans of underwater world have a possibility to enjoy diving adventures. Canyons of the Vrbas and its tributaries, with steep slopes, are excellent for free climbing and mountaineering. The rivers of Drina, Pliva and Ugar are a real magnet for all fans of fly-fishing and fishing. Kozarac, also below the slopes of Kozara, is still dominated by the tower built in , during extension of the former fortification.
The Zvornik Lake is also very attractive. There are excellent conditions for fishing hucho, trout, carp, chub , swimming, kayaking competitions and other water sports. In the valley, and still surrounded by a beautiful mountain range, this place provides excellent conditions for paragliding, mountaineering and mountain biking.
Furrowed sand pillars rise from their wide foundations and narrow down toward the top, thus representing an exceptional geomorphologic rarity. The longest cave in Srpska is the Big Cave, and the biggest underground ice structure is Ledana pit in Ribnik municipality. In addition to drawings, they also discovered stone tools, artifacts from the Lower, Middle and Upper Paleolithic.
Typical karst cave, it is rich in mountain jewelry. By now, around 2, meters of the cave hallway and channel have been explored. It has nine pools suitable for fishing and water sports, and one of them has been developed as a swimming pool. Ski slopes on Jahorina are suitable for both the beginners and professional skiers. Excellent terrain configuration, abundance of high quality snow, good climate, 20 kilometers of slopes for alpine skiing, as well as soft slopes, numerous hotels and restaurants, make this mountain one of the most beautiful and most famous ski resorts in the region.
It is regarded as the first quality air spa, with a wide range of health benefits. Kozara, the mountain beauty near Prijedor, has been a national park since This very attractive mountain is the perfect destination for those who love nature and winter sports. It dominates this part of Srpska with its height, vastness and beauty. As a memory to Kozara soldiers who were killed defending the freedom, in the central part of the National Park, Mrakovica, there is the famous Memorial Complex Monument, Memorial Wall and Museum , built in It has developed programs for health, wellness, recreational and congress tourism.
It is beneficial in rehabilitation of cardiovascular, rheumatology and neurological disorders. The Health-. The main medicinal properties of water, rich in radon, come from its radioactivity. Thermal waters are also rich in sodium, potassium, magnesium, aluminium, lithium, strontium, manganese, iron, ammonium-hydro carbonate, aluminium-oxide, oxides of iron and other metals. This spa resort is a place for the treatment, among other things, of inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic, neurological and skin diseases.
Its water is characterized by a high degree of alkalinity, and low level of mineralization, which gives evident results in the treatment of psoriasis. About fifteen mills were built here a few centuries ago, and in April this place received the status of ecological zone.
Within the complex there is a good wine cellar. In addition to numerous programs of Serbian cultural heritage, it is also adorned by the Monastery of St. G u i d e It was an important city in the early new age , at the time of the Vrbas Banovina and especially now, as the capital of Srpska. And every time this would lead to a great upswing and blooming. This noble and very tidy city, without anything oriental in its character and appearance, is also called a city of culture, youth, sports, beautiful people.
Up until the 19th century it was like this. Then comes Austro-Hungary, and with it making order, in a strict Germanic way. This is how it was with the city greenery, which had been the symbol of this city since ancient times. From the times of Turkish occupation, along the streets and alleys of Banjaluka only dwarfing apples, plums, pears and other fruit have remained, the branches of which were broken by mischievous children while eating unripe fruits.
Nowadays, the new government developed the first parks, and along the curbs of Banjaluka streets, instead of crippled fruit trees, they planted, tilia and other deciduous trees. This is how the famous alleys originated, until today the most beautiful symbols of Banjaluka.
The biggest merit for the creation of alleys has Austro-Hungarian general Alfred von Jelson Under the command of this high officer and baron, from to , as much as 17 kilometers of tree alleys were planted, with almost 5, trees. Some Banjalukans, not used to chang-. Linguists, however, think that the name of this city derived from the verb banj, i. It is not known for certain which medieval Ban it was. Meanwhile, two different transcriptions of the name of the city were accepted as equal: separated Banja Luka and as one word Banjaluka.
In accordance with the said etymology, it also requires a consequent change of the adjective in Serbian language. To the satisfaction of all later inhabitants of the city, as well as guests, the seedlings thrived and, with time, grew into a peaceful gauntlet, which is today comprised of over 20, trees in about fifty kilometers of tree alleys.
And the entire city with them! Namely, archaeological findings indicate that there used to be a Roman camp Castra, and next to it, along the Crkvena, a civilian settlement with a temple dedicated to god Jupiter. This is also indicated by the foundations of a late Roman administrative building discovered within the fortress. Later, on this location, Turks built a large fortification.
The fortress, which is still hiding numerous secrets of past centuries in known and hidden hallways, can today be entered from three directions: from the north from the Market , from the west from Ferhadija and from the from the Vrbas. If we decide to use the northern gate, a stone building. On these gates, apparently, the fatal love was born, which would create the material fro famous Banjaluka legend about Safikada In this part of Kastel today there is an open stage, where concerts of classical, rock, folk and ethno music take place, and occasionally theatre performances.
The city center is created around the newly built Christian Orthodox temple. On the Day of St. A new golden era of this city begins. Energetic and entrepreneurial, the Ban changes the face and spirit of the city. In only thirteen months, The Banovina Administration was built today the City Administration Office , on the third anniversary of his coming into the city the Ban court was moved, theatre and museum were founded meanwhile, newspaper launched, apartments for civil servants were built, a new hotel, park in the centre of the city Dayak Boats on the Waters of the Vrbas Guests visiting the bulwarks of Kastel during summer will almost certainly have a chance to see a dayak down in the river, from its bulwarks.
This unusual vessel is a symbol of the city and has been the pride of Banjaluka for more than a century and a half. The body of this boat, 7 to 9 meters long, is made of fir tree, while prow and stern are made from harder wood oak, locust or ash tree.
The boat is actually pushed and navigated by means of a dayak, a special pole after which it was named. This wooden pole, several meters long, has a tip strengthened with a crown and spike, which achieves safer and easier push against the rocky bottom of the river. Ride in a dayak is a special experience and the matter of city prestige. This temple was short-lived demolished to the ground in , but its reconstruction began in This artist graduated from the faculty of sculpture in Paris, and the October Revolution brought him to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in which he would remain for three decades.
In , he moved with his family to Sidney, where he died in The symbol of that Banjaluka from the early 21st century is certainly the Administrative Centre of the Government of Republika Srpska, which was put in use in This modern complex is dominated by the highest building in the city, 17 floors high Government of Republika Srpska. In immediate vicinity there is the House of Radio-Television of Republika Srpska, and business centre which includes the Tax Administration.
On the highest floor of the latter building, the fourteenth, there is a big restaurant. F o u n d ati o n s After disintegration of Yugoslavia, as a big and united economic system, then war destruction, some important characteristics of economic environment in this region have been changed. In the past fifteen years, the economy of Srpska has been erected on the concepts of privatization, establishing small and medium sized companies, infrastructural projects, as well as direct foreign investments.
Important fields of its geo-economy are energy, food and processing industry, services and financial sector. Its natural resources, rich and diverse, are the key factor for geo-economic shaping of this republic.
Main competitive advantages for investment here are agricultural land, forest complexes, hydroclimate conditions, mineral resources, and big tourist potentials. Energy industry certainly has a strategic position in the economy of Srpska and it attracts interest of numerous foreign and local investors. Big Ventures in Energy Industry The energy industry of Srpska, however, is yet to face the realization of big projects.
Together with thermal power plants that use coal in Gacko and Ugljevik, total available power of the producers is 1, megawatts and it satisfies the needs of citizens amend local economy, while a part of electric power is exported. More than 50 percent of the production went to export. According to the data from , there are more than 1, food manufacturers here. About companies, agricultural cooperatives and independent producers are involved in agricultural production and services in agriculture.
They employ. Healthy Food In the past years Srpska has been developing capacities for production of organic food, and strengthening brands based on tradition in the production and on geographic origin of products. Available resources, existence of production tradition, as well as a large number of entities that standardized products and processes, enabled the food produced on Srpska to be sold in increasingly big quantities in the European Union, USA, Canada, Russia and Australia.
Forests Forestry is another national natural treasure and economic potential of Srpska. Forest complex stretches over 1,, hectares. Of this, 50 percent are high forests, 27 percent low, and the rest is comprised of woodlands and barrens. In addition to production of wood intermediates for farther processing, forests are the basis for operation and significant number of companies involved in collecting and processing secondary forest products, medicinal herbs and mushrooms, but also processing of forest waste.
Individual farmers and agricultural companies work in farming, animal husbandry, fruit and vegetable growing, fishery, bee-keeping, all the way to viticulture and production of medicinal and aromatic plants.
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This includes the likes of eToro and AvaTrade, which we discuss in more detail shortly. In other cases, your chosen broker might charge commission in percentage terms. For example, if you are being quoted 0. When you close the trade, you will again pay a commission of 0. The section above explained that one of the best forex trading strategies for beginners is to choose a low spread and zero commission broker.
However, when choosing a broker, you need to look at a variety of other factors. For example, is the broker regulated, does it offer transparent trading conditions, and what currency pairs are supported. To ensure you are able to deploy the best forex trading strategies in the most effective way possible — below you will find a small selection of brokers that are worth considering.
This regulated forex broker offers dozens of major, minor, and exotic pairs — all of which come with tight spreads. Before you start trading with real money, you might consider the demo account offered by eToro. This means that you can trade forex passively — as your chosen currency trader will buy and sell on your behalf. Next up is Libertex - a hugely popular forex and CFD trading platform that allows you to enter and exit the market without paying any spreads.
Instead, you will pay a super-small commission per slide. This pricing structure operates like a conventional ECN broker account - which is especially ideal for forex day traders. Much like eToro, Libertex offers a great selection of major, minor, and exotic currencies. The platform allows you to trade via its website or through third-party providers MT4 and MT5. There is also a mobile app - should you wish to trade forex on the move. Visit Libertex Now.
CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money. We discussed earlier how technical analysis is one of the best forex trading strategies to learn as a beginner. If you're ready to take the plunge - AvaTrade is a good option.
This platform is fully compatible with MT4 and MT5 - which are both packed with technical indicators and candlestick time frames. AvaTrade offers a free demo account that you can connect to the aforementioned third-party platforms - meaning you can practice technical analysis risk-free. This top-rated forex broker also offers plenty of educational resources that can help you learn how to read pricing charts effectively.
When it comes to fees, AvaTrade allows you to enter and exit forex positions without paying any commission. Plus, when trading major pairs, you'll get some of the best spreads on offer. AvaTrade is regulated in six regions and allows you to deposit funds with a debit card or bank wire. If you're ready to deploy one or more of the best forex trading strategies discussed today - we are now going to walk you through the process with commission-free broker eToro.
Visit the eToro website and click on the 'Join Now' button. You will need to provide some personal information - such as your full name, nationality, and contact details. Although you don't need to upload any ID to use the demo account facility - it's best to quickly do this now.
After all, there will come a time when you decide to start trading with real money. All you need to do is upload a copy of your government-issued ID and a proof of address. We mentioned earlier that one of the best forex trading strategies for beginners is to start off with a demo account.
All you need to do at eToro is switch your account from 'real' to 'virtual'. When you are ready to trade in live market conditions - you'll need to make a deposit. Now that your account is funded you can search for the forex pair you wish to trade.
Then, you'll need to set up a real order so that eToro knows what position you wish to take. This guide has covered some of the best forex trading strategies for beginners. Each and every strategy can be deployed through a good online broker. In fact, when opting for eToro, you can try the best forex day trading strategies discussed today in a risk-free manner.
This is because all eToro users get a free demo account simply for signing up. Plus, you'll find dozens of forex pairs on the platform - all of which can be traded commission-free. The final icing on the cake is the eToro Copy Trading feature - which allows you to copy an experienced currency trader in a fully passive nature!
In order to choose the best forex strategy for you - spend some time thinking about your financial goals. For example, if you can only commit a certain amount of time to forex - swing trading is the way forward. But, if you are prepared to trade forex on a full-time basis - day trading will likely suffice.
Once you become a pro - you might then consider forex scalping and break out strategies. A forex trading strategy will ensure that you trade currencies in a risk-averse way. It will ensure you protect your capital in the long run and deploy sensible entry and exit positions.
Ultimately, all successful traders have a strategy in place - so make sure you find one that works for you! The most effective way to backtest a forex trading strategy is to use a demo account. This will mirror actual market conditions and thus - you can backtest your forex trading strategy. One of the best forex trading strategies is to stick with a risk-reward ratio. The best way to create a forex strategy that works for you is via trial and error.
You can do this without risking any money on a top-rated demo account that mirrors live market conditions. We would argue that the best forex trading strategy for beginners is one that combines research with a day trading simulator. In other words, you should learn the theory of forex trading, while practicing this via a risk-free demo account.
This will ensure that you avoid high levels of liquidty. Kane Pepi is a British researcher and writer that specializes in finance, financial crime, and blockchain technology. Now based in Malta, Kane writes for a number of platforms in the online domain. In particular, Kane is skilled at explaining complex financial subjects in a user-friendly manner.
Home » forex » strategies. Kane Pepi Pro Investor. Updated: 18 March Featured Broker. Visit Site. Mobile App Rating. FX Pairs. Additional Fees. Rolling fee. Conversion Fee. Trading Platforms. Raw Materials. Additional Features. Islamic Account. Automated Trading. Funding Methods. Bank Transfer.
One of the latest Forex trading strategies to be used is the pips a day Forex strategy which leverages the early market move of certain highly liquid currency pairs. After the 7am GMT candlestick closes, traders place two positions or two opposite pending orders. When one of them gets activated by price movements, the other position is automatically cancelled.
The profit target is set at 50 pips, and the stop-loss order is placed anywhere between 5 and 10 pips above or below the 7am GMT candlestick, after its formation. This is implemented to manage risk. After these conditions are set, it is now up to the market to do the rest. Day trading and scalping are both short-term Forex trading strategies. However, remember that shorter-term implies greater risk due to the nature of more trades taken, so it is essential to ensure effective risk management.
MT4 account:. Accessed: 27 April at am BST - Please note: Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future results or future performance. The orange boxes show the 7am bar. In some instances, the next bar did not trade beyond the high or low of the previous bar resulting in no trading setup unless the trader left their orders in the market. The effectiveness of the 50 pips a day Forex strategy has not been tested over time and merely serves as a platform of ideas for you to build upon.
Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future results. The best Forex traders swear by daily charts over more short-term strategies. Compared to the Forex 1-hour trading strategy, or even those with lower time-frames, there is less market noise involved with a Forex daily chart strategy. Such Forex trade setups could give you over pips a day due to their longer timeframe, which has the potential to result in some of the best Forex trade setups and potentially some of the most successful trading strategies around.
Daily Forex strategy signals can be more reliable than lower timeframes, and the potential for profit could also be greater, although there are no guarantees in trading. Traders also don't need to be concerned about daily news and random price fluctuations. The Forex daily strategy is based on three main principles:. While there are plenty of trading strategy guides available for professional FX traders, the best Forex strategy for consistent profits and creating the most successful trading strategies can only be achieved through extensive practice.
Let's continue the list of trading strategies and look at another one of the best trading strategies. You can take advantage of the minute time frame in this Forex strategy. In regards to the Forex trading strategies resources used for this type of strategy, the MACD is the most suitable which is available on both MetaTrader 4 and MetaTrader 5.
You can enter a long position when the MACD histogram goes above the zero line. The stop loss could be placed at a recent swing low. You can enter a short position when the MACD histogram goes below the zero line. The stop loss could be placed at a recent swing high.
The red lines represent scenarios where the MACD histogram has gone above and below the zero line:. While many Forex traders prefer intraday Forex trading systems due to the market volatility providing more opportunities in narrower time frames, a Forex weekly trading strategy can provide more flexibility and stability. A weekly candlestick provides extensive market information.
Weekly Forex trading strategies are based on lower position sizes and avoiding excessive risks. For this strategy, traders can use the most commonly used price action trading patterns such as engulfing candles, haramis and hammers. One of the most commonly used patterns in Forex trading is the hammer which looks like the image below:. Accessed: 27 April at pm BST - Please note: Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future results or future performance.
To what extent fundamentals are used varies from trader to trader. At the same time, the best Forex strategy will invariably use price action. This is also known as technical analysis. When it comes to technical currency trading strategies, there are two main styles: trend following and countertrend trading. Both of these FX trading strategies try to profit by recognising and exploiting price patterns. When it comes to price patterns, the most important concepts include support and resistance.
Put simply, these terms represent the tendency of a market to bounce back from previous lows and highs. This occurs because market participants tend to judge subsequent prices against recent highs and lows. Therefore, recent highs and lows are the yardsticks by which current prices are evaluated. There is also a self-fulfilling aspect to support and resistance levels. This happens because market participants anticipate certain price action at these points and act accordingly.
As a result, their actions can contribute to the market behaving as they had expected. Did you know that you can see live technical and fundamental analysis in the Admirals Trading Spotlight webinar? In these FREE live sessions, taken three times a week, professional traders will show you a wide variety of technical and fundamental analysis trading techniques you can use to identify common chart patterns and trading opportunities in a variety of different markets.
Sometimes a market breaks out of a range, moving below the support or above the resistance to start a trend. How does this happen? When support breaks down and a market moves to new lows, buyers begin to hold off. This is because buyers are constantly noticing cheaper prices being established and want to wait for a bottom to be reached. At the same time, there will be traders who are selling in panic or simply being forced out of their positions or building short positions because they believe it can go lower.
The trend continues until the selling is depleted and belief starts to return to buyers when it is established that the prices will not decline further. Trend-following strategies encourage traders to buy the market once it has broken through resistance and sell a market once they have fallen through support. In addition, trends can be dramatic and prolonged, too. Because of the magnitude of moves involved, this type of system has the potential to be the most successful Forex trading strategy.
Trend-following systems use indicators to inform traders when a new trend may have begun, but there's no sure-fire way to know of course. Here's the good news: If the indicator can establish a time when there's an improved chance that a trend has begun, you are tilting the odds in your favour to use the best Forex trading system. The indication that a trend might be forming is called a breakout.
A breakout is when the price moves beyond the highest high or the lowest low for a specified number of days. For example A day breakout to the upside is when the price goes above the highest high of the last 20 days. Trend-following systems require a particular mindset, because of the long duration - during which time profits can disappear as the market swings.
These trades can be more psychologically demanding. When markets are volatile, trends will tend to be more disguised and price swings will be greater. Therefore, a trend-following system is the best trading strategy for Forex markets that are quiet and trending.
A good example of a simple trend-following strategy is a Donchian Trend system. Donchian channels were invented by futures trader Richard Donchian , and is an indicator of trends being established. The Donchian channel parameters can be tweaked as you see fit, but for this example, we will look at a day breakout. It's called Admiral Donchian. To upgrade your MetaTrader platform to the Supreme Edition simply click on the banner below:.
There is an additional rule for trading when the market state is more favourable to the Forex trading system. This rule is designed to filter out breakouts that go against the long-term trend. In short, you look at the day moving average MA and the day moving average. The direction of the shorter moving average determines the direction that is permitted. This rule states that you can only go:.
Trades are exited in a similar way to entry, but only using a day breakout. This means that if you open a long position and the market goes below the low of the prior 10 days, you might want to sell to exit the trade and vice versa. Now let's look at another system that could be the best trading strategy for you. One potentially beneficial and profitable Forex trading strategy is the 4-hour trend following strategy which can also be used as a swing trading strategy. This strategy uses a 4-hour base chart to screen for potential trading signal locations.
The 1-hour chart is used as the signal chart, to determine where the actual positions will be taken. Always remember that the time frame for the signal chart should be at least an hour lower than the base chart. For this Forex strategy, two sets of moving average lines are chosen for the best results. One will be the period MA, while the other is the period MA. To ascertain whether a trend is worth trading, the MA lines will need to relate to the price action.
The MA lines will be a support zone during uptrends, and there will be resistance zones during downtrends. It is inside and around this zone that the best positions for the trend trading strategy can be found. Below is a daily chart of GBPUSD showing the exponential moving average purple line and the exponential moving average red line on the chart:.